El algoritmo de FITIA se encuentra basado en más de 100 estudios e investigaciones científicas sobre la mejora de la composición corporal.

 

A continuación, se presentan las principales referencias que fueron tomadas en cuenta para la construcción de las recomendaciones nutricionales. Esta documentación es actualizada según sea publicada nueva evidencia científica.

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  • Helms, E.R., A.A. Aragon, and P.J. Fitschen, Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2014.

  • Ainsworth, B.E., et al., Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1993.

  • Forbes, G.B., Body fat content influences the body composition response to nutrition and exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2000.

  • Kondo, M., et al., Upper limit of fat-free mass in humans: A study on Japanese Sumo wrestlers. Am J Hum Biol, 1994.

  • Ainsworth, B.E., et al., Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1993.

  • Wilson, J.M., et al., Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res, 2012.

  • Borsheim, E. and R. Bahr, Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption. Sports Med, 2003.

  • Garthe, I., et al., Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition and performance in elite athletes. Eur J Sport Sci, 2013.

  • Williams, M.H., Nutrition for health, fitness, and sport. 2005: McGraw-Hill Science Engineering.

  • Levine, J.A., N.L. Eberhardt, and M.D. Jensen, Role of Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis in Resistance to Fat Gain in Humans. Science, 1999.

  • Maltais, M.L., et al., Effect of Resistance Training and Various Sources of Protein Supplementation on Body Fat Mass and Metabolic Profile in Sarcopenic Overweight Elderly Men: A Pilot Study. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2015.

  • Fagerberg, P., Negative consequences of low energy availability in natural male bodybuilding: a review. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2018.

  • Burke, L.M., et al., Pitfalls of Conducting and Interpreting Estimates of Energy Availability in Free-Living Athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2018.

  • Bilsborough, S. and N. Mann, A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2006.

  • Lemon, P.W., Beyond the zone: Protein needs of active individuals. JJ Am Coll Nutr, 2000.

  • Millward, D.J., Macronutrient intakes as determinants of dietary protein and amino acid adequacy. Journal of Nutrition, 2004.

  • Elia, M., R.J. Stubbs, and C.J. Henry, Differences in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism between lean and obese subjects undergoing total starvation. Obes Res, 1999.

  • Saudek, C.D. and P. Felig, The metabolic events of starvation. Am J Med, 1976.

  • Helms, E.R., et al., A Systematic Review of Dietary Protein During Caloric Restriction in Resistance Trained Lean Athletes: A Case for Higher Intakes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2014.

  • Hector, A.J., et al., Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise. The FASEB Journal, 2018.

  • Carbone, J.W., et al., Effects of short-term energy deficit on muscle protein breakdown and intramuscular proteolysis in normal-weight young adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2014.

  • Pasiakos, S.M., et al., Acute energy deprivation affects skeletal muscle protein synthesis and associated intracellular signaling proteins in physically active adults. J Nutr, 2010.

  • Heymsfield, S.B., et al., Voluntary weight loss: systematic review of early phase body composition changes. Obes Rev, 2011.

  • Murphy, C.H., A.J. Hector, and S.M. Phillips, Considerations for protein intake in managing weight loss in athletes. Eur J Sport Sci,, 2015.

  • Phillips, S.M. and L.J. Van Loon, Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci, 2011.

  • Jager, R., et al., International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2017.

  • Hector, A. and S.M. Phillips, Protein Recommendations for Weight Loss in Elite Athletes: A Focus on Body Composition and Performance. 2017.

  • Walberg, J.L., et al., Macronutrient content of a hypoenergy diet affects nitrogen retention and muscle function in weight lifters. Int J Sports Med, 1988.

  • Mettler, S., N. Mitchell, and K.D. Tipton, Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2010.

  • Longland, T.M., et al., Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 2016. 103.

  • Helms, E.R., et al., High-protein, low-fat, short-term diet results in less stress and fatigue than moderate-protein moderate-fat diet during weight loss in male weightlifters: a pilot study. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2015.

  • Pasiakos, S.M., et al., Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB Journal, 2013.

  • Tipton, K.D. and R.R. Wolfe, Protein and amino acids for athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2004.

  • Antonio, J., et al., A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women--a follow-up investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2015.

  • Antonio, J., et al., The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/ kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2014.

  • Horswill, C.A., et al., Weight loss, dietary carbohydrate modifications, and high intensity, physical performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1990.

  • Leveritt, M. and P.J. Abernethy, Effects of Carbohydrate Restriction on Strength Performance. 1999

  • Morton, R.W., et al., A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Br J Sports Med, 2018.

  • Willoughby, D.S., J.R. Stout, and C.D. Wilborn, Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength. Amino Acids, 2007.

  • Candow, D.G., et al., Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2006.

  • Cribb, P.J., et al., Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007.

  • Hoffman, J.R., et al., Effect of a proprietary protein supplement on recovery indices following resistance exercise in strength/power athletes. Amino Acids, 2010.

  • Hoffman, J.R., et al., Effect of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body-composition changes in resistance-trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2009.

  • Hoffman, J.R., et al., Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2006.

  • Paolisso, G., et al., Advancing age and insulin resistance: new facts about an ancient history. Eur J Clin Invest, 1999.

  • Kumar, V., et al., Age-related differences in the dose–response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men. The Journal of Physiology, 2009.

  • Manini, T.M., Energy Expenditure and Aging. Ageing Research Reviews, 2010.

  • Franz, M.J., So Many Nutrition Recommendations — Contradictory or Compatible? Diabetes Spectrum, 2003.

  • Feinman, R.D., et al., Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base. Nutrition, 2015.

  • Hall, Kevin D., et al., Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. Cell Metabolism, 2015.

  • Chatterton, S., Zinn, C., Storey, A.G., Helms, E.R., The effect of an 8-week LCHF diet in sub-elite Olympic weightlifters and powerlifters on strength and power performance: A pilot case-study. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 2017.

  • Vargas, S., et al., Efficacy of ketogenic diet on body composition during resistance training in trained men: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2018.

  • Gibson, A., et al., Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev, 2015.

  • Kephart, W.C., et al., The Three-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Blood Parameters, and Performance Metrics in CrossFit Trainees: A Pilot Study. Sports, 2018.

  • Escobar, K.A., Morales, J., Vandusseldorp, T.A., The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance. Int J Exerc Sci, 2016.

  • Hall, K.D., Guo, J., Obesity energetics: body weight regulation and the effects of diet composition. Gastroenterology, 2017.

  • Cholewa, J.M., Newmire, D.E., Zanchi, N.E., Carbohydrate Restriction: Friend or Foe of Resistance-Based Exercise Performance? Nutrition, 2018.

  • Johnstone, A.M., et al., Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr, 2008.

  • Green, D.A., et al., A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Reduces Body Weight Without Compromising Performance in Powerlifting and Olympic Weightlifting Athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 2018.

  • Sawyer, J.C., et al., Effects of a short-term carbohydrate-restricted diet on strength and power performance. J Strength Cond Res, 2013.

  • Paoli, A., et al., Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2012.

  • Chappell, A.J., Simper, T., Barker, M.E., Nutritional strategies of high level natural bodybuilders during competition preparation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2018.

  • Ebbeling, C.B., et al., Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA, 2007.

  • Gardner, C.D., et al., Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial. Obesity, 2016.

  • Gardner, C.D., et al., Effect of low-fat vs low-carbohydrate diet on 12-month weight loss in overweight adults and the association with genotype pattern or insulin secretion: The DIETFITS randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 2018.

  • Danadian, K., et al., Insulin sensitivity in African-American children with and without family history of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 1999.

  • Arslanian, S.A., et al., Family history of type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and an impaired balance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in white youth. Diabetes Care, 2005.

  • Svendsen, P.F., et al., Obesity, body composition and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod, 2008.

  • Mavropoulos, J.C., et al., The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study. Nutrition and Metabolism, 2005.

  • Kristensen, M. and M.G. Jensen, Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity. Appetite, 2011.

  • Shah, M., et al., Effect of a High-Fiber Diet Compared With a Moderate- Fiber Diet on Calcium and Other Mineral Balances in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2009.

  • Turner, N.D. and J.R. Lupton, Dietary Fiber. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 2011.

  • Calton, J., Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2010.

  • Sandoval, W.M. and V.H. Heyward, Food selection patterns of bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr, 1991.

  • Sandoval, W.M., V.H. Heyward, and T.M. Lyons, Comparison of body composition, exercise and nutritional profiles of female and male bodybuilders at competition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1989.

  • Walberg-Rankin, J., C.E. Edmonds, and F.C. Gwazdauskas, Diet and weight changes of female bodybuilders before and after competition. Int J Sport Nutr, 1993.

  • Bazzarre, T.L., S.M. Kleiner, and M.D. Litchford, Nutrient intake, body fat, and lipid profiles of competitive male and female bodybuilders. J Am Coll Nutr, 1990.

  • Kleiner, S.M., T.L. Bazzarre, and B.E. Ainsworth, Nutritional status of nationally ranked elite bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr, 1994.

  • Helms, E.R., A.A. Aragon, and P.J. Fitschen, Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2014.

  • Maxwell, C. and S.L. Volpe, Effect of zinc supplementation on thyroid hormone function. A case study of two college females. Ann Nutr Metab, 2007.

  • Ismaeel, A., Weems, S., Willoughby, D.S., A Comparison of the Nutrient Intakes of Macronutrient-Based Dieting and Strict Dieting Bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2018.

  • Slavin, J.L. and B. Lloyd, Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 2012.

  • Killer, S.C., A.K. Blannin, and A.E. Jeukendrup, No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population. PLoS One, 2014.

  • O’Brien, C. and F. Lyons, Alcohol and the Athlete. Sports Med, 2000.

  • Armstrong, L.E., et al., Urinary indices of hydration status. Int J Sport Nutr, 1994.

  • Kraft, J.A., et al., The influence of hydration on anaerobic performance: a review. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2012.

  • Wing, R.R. and R.W. Jeffery, Prescribed “breaks” as a means to disrupt weight control efforts. Obes Res, 2003.

  • Rosenbaum, M., et al., Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight. Am J Clin Nutr, 2008.

  • Levine, J.A., N.L. Eberhardt, and M.D. Jensen, Role of Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis in Resistance to Fat Gain in Humans. Science, 1999.

  • Byrne, N.M., et al., Intermittent energy restriction improves weight loss efficiency in obese men: the MATADOR study. Int J Obes, 2018.

  • Trexler, E.T., A.E. Smith-Ryan, and L.E. Norton, Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2014.

  • Coelho do Vale, R., R. Pieters, and M. Zeelenberg, The benefits of behaving badly on occasion: Successful regulation by planned hedonic deviations. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2016.

  • Bussau, V.A., et al., Carbohydrate loading in human muscle: an improved 1 day protocol. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2002.

  • Seimon, R.V., et al., Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2015.

  • Harris, L., et al., Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 2018.

  • Harvie, M., et al., The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women. Br J Nutr, 2013.

  • Campbell, B.I., et al., The effects of intermittent carbohydrate re-feeds vs. continuous dieting on body composition in resistance trained individuals. 2018.

  • Friedman, J., P.D. Neufer, and G.L. Dohm, Regulation of Glycogen Resynthesis Following Exercise. Sports Med, 1991.

  • Ballor, D.L., et al., Resistance weight training during caloric restriction enhances lean body weight maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr, 1988.

  • Schoenfeld, B.J., A.A. Aragon, and J.W. Krieger, Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis. Nutr Rev, 2015.

  • Stote, K.S., et al., A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007.

  • Leidy, H.J., et al., The influence of higher protein intake and greater eating frequency on appetite control in overweight and obese men. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2010.

  • Arciero, P.J., et al., Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2013.

  • Iwao, S., K. Mori, and Y. Sato, Effects of meal frequency on body composition during weight control in boxers. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1996.

  • Munsters, M.J. and W.H. Saris, Effects of meal frequency on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males. PLoS One, 2012.

  • Verboeket-van de Venne, W.P. and K.R. Westerterp, Influence of the feeding frequency on nutrient utilization in man: consequences for energy metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1991.

  • Farshchi, H.R., M.A. Taylor, and I.A. Macdonald, Decreased thermic effect of food after an irregular compared with a regular meal pattern in healthy lean women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 2004.

  • Aragon, A.A. and B.J. Schoenfeld, Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2013.

  • Conley, M.S. and M.H. Stone, Carbohydrate ingestion/supplementation for resistance exercise and training. Sports Med, 1996.

  • Ha , G.G., et al., Carbohydrate supplementation and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 2003.

  • Roy, B.D. and M.A. Tarnopolsky, Influence of differing macronutrient intakes on muscle glycogen resynthesis after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol, 1998.

  • Snyder, A.C., et al., Carbohydrate consumption prior to repeated bouts of high- intensity exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 1993.

  • Tsintzas, K., et al., Carbohydrate ingestion prior to exercise augments the exercise-induced activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in human skeletal muscle. Exp Physiol, 2000.

  • Kulik, J.R., et al., Supplemental carbohydrate ingestion does not improve performance of high-intensity resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res, 2008.

  • Miller, S.L. and R.R. Wolfe, Physical exercise as a modulator of adaptation to low and high carbohydrate and low and high fat intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1999.

  • Schoenfeld, B.J., A.A. Aragon, and J.W. Krieger, The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2013.

  • Hind, K., et al., Interpretation of Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry-Derived Body Composition Change in Athletes: a Review and Recommendations for Best Practice. J Clin Densitom, 2018.

  • Clasey, J.L., et al., Validity of methods of body composition assessment in young and older men and women. J Appl Physiol, 1999.

  • Helms, E.R., et al., High-protein, low-fat, short-term diet results in less stress and fatigue than moderate-protein moderate-fat diet during weight loss in male weightlifters: a pilot study. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2015.

  • Perini, T.A., et al., Technical error of measurement in anthropometry. Rev Bras Med Esporte, 2005. 11(1): p. 81–5.

  • Elia, M., R.J. Stubbs, and C.J. Henry, Differences in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism between lean and obese subjects undergoing total starvation. Obes Res, 1999.

  • Suryanarayana, B.V., et al., Pituitary-gonadal axis during prolonged total starvation in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr, 1969.

  • Essen-Gustavsson, B. and P.A. Tesch, Glycogen and triglyceride utilization in relation to muscle metabolic characteristics in men performing heavy- resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1990.

  • Boesch, C., et al., Effect of diet on the replenishment of intramyocellular lipids after exercise. Eur J Nutr, 2000.

  • Mero, A.A., et al., Moderate energy restriction with high protein diet results in healthier outcome in women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2010.

  • Garthe, I., et al., Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletes.

  • Ogden, J., Whyman, C., The effect of repeated weighing on psychological state. Eur Eat Disord Rev, 1997.

  • Strother, E., Lemberg, R., Stanford, S.C., Turberville, D., Eating disorders in men: underdiagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood. Eating Disorders, 2012.

  • Daniels, M.C., Popkin B.M., Impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review. Nutr Rev, 2010.

  • Roberts, A., The safety and regulatory process for low calorie sweeteners in the United States. Physiol Behav, 2016.

  • Miller, P.E., Perez, V., Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr, 2014.

  • Peters, J.C., et al., The effects of water and non-nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity, 2016.

  • Mytton, O.T., et al., Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of increased vegetable and fruit consumption on body weight and energy, 2014.

  • Stote, K.S., et al., A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007.

  • Borvornparadorn, M., et al., Increased chewing reduces energy intake, but not postprandial glucose and insulin, in healthy weight and overweight young adults. Nutr Diet, 2018.

  • Poelman, M.P., et al., Behavioural strategies to control the amount of food selected and consumed. Appetite, 2014.

La aplicación FITIA no representa un diagnóstico médico ni está destinada a tratar o curar alguna condición médica o enfermedad. Le recomendamos consultar a su médico antes de utilizar cualquier programa de nutrición sugerido por la aplicación FITIA.

 

Para más información, ver los Términos y Condiciones y Política de Privacidad. 

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